"Subdiffusion and the cage effect studied near the colloidal glass transition", Eric R. Weeks and D. A. Weitz, Chemical Physics 284, 361-367 (2002).

The dynamics of a glass-forming material slow greatly near the glass transition, and molecular motion becomes inhibited. We use confocal microscopy to investigate the motion of colloidal particles near the colloidal glass transition. As the concentration in a dense colloidal suspension is increased, particles become confined in transient cages formed by their neighbors. This prevents them from diffusing freely throughout the sample. We quantify the properties of these cages by measuring temporal anticorrelations of the particles' displacements. The local cage properties are related to the subdiffusive rise of the mean square displacement: over a broad range of time scales, the mean square displacement grows slower than linearly in time.