Data from experiments and simulations studying how rods pack randomly into containers.

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## Rod packing data

These data sets were studied in:

• "Random packing of rods in small containers"
JO Freeman, S Peterson, C Cao, Y Wang, SV Franklin, & ER Weeks, Granular Matter 21, 84 (2019).

### Figure 4 data (bulk experiment)

Data for observed volume fraction from bulk experiments. We'll describe the columns of this file, but first, note that 'rod' represents our cylindrical particles, and 'cylinder' represents our cylindrical containers used to conduct the experiment. Column descriptions:
1. Rod: The first number indicates diameter size by fractions of an inch. 16 means 1/16 in (1.59 mm) diameter rods, and 8 means 1/8 in (3.18 mm) diameter rods. The second number indicates the length of the rod in aspect ratios of the diameter. 16A4 indicates a rod of diameter 1/16in (1.59 mm) and a length approximately 4 times longer than the diameter, 1/4 in (6.36 mm). Marble indicates measurements taken with marbles, set to aspect ratio 1.
2. AR: Aspect ratio of the rod/marble.
3. L: Average length of 10 rods picked at random from the rod set (cm).
4. Cyl: Cylinder indicator. Each cylinder used for testing was numbered. The numbers are unordered, and larger cylinder numbers do not correlate with larger containers. Cylinders identified by just a number are tall height cylinders (12.8 cm, 12.5 for two very thin cylinders). Cylinders marked with S indicate that the cylinder comes from a shorter set of cylinders (~7.3 cm). Cylinders marked with an H represent trials from different heights between our main tall and short data sets, with heights of 10 cm and 4 cm.
5. R: Radius of cylinder (cm).
6. H: Height of cylinder (cm).
7. Phi: Volume fraction from 5 averaged packing trials for a specific rod set in a specific container.
8. Vol: Calculated volume of each cylinder (cm^3).
9. StDev: Standard deviations for each Phi value.
The data with H ~ 12.8 cm are the points plotted in Fig. 4(a) of our paper, and with H ~ 7.4 cm are the points plotted in Fig. 4(b). The other data (H = 4 cm, H = 10 cm) were used to calculate data for Fig. 5. Two other heights are used; these correspond to tall cylinders that are filled only to a height marked by an inscribed line.

### Figure 5 data (bulk experiment)

• phi_h.txt: data for Fig. 5, derived from the experimental results of Fig. 4. In other words, this is not raw data. Format: (aspect ratio, phi, L/H, uncertainty in phi).

### Figure 6 data (experiments and simulation)

• fig6.txt: data for Fig. 6. Format: (flag, aspect ratio, phi_infinty, err phi_infinity, CR(tall), err CR(tall), CR(short), err CR(short), CH, err CH). Flag = (1 for bulk experiment, 2 for simulation, 3 for x-ray tomography). CR(tall) and CR(short) are the downward triangles and upward triangles of Fig. 6c. For the x-ray data and simulation, CR(tall) is the only value given (and plotted) in Fig. 6c; the data for CR(short) are zeros. Likewise the CH data are those plotted in Fig. 6b of the paper and only correspond to the experimental data. See paper for more details.

### Figures 7-10 data (x-ray experiments)

• tomography.zip: contains positions and orientations of rods in large (diameter = 12.6 cm) and small (diameter = 4.5 cm) cylindrical containers, both with height 7.4 cm. The rods are 0.32 cm diameter, length 2.57 cm, aspect ratio 8. There are files that start with "Rc", these are the (x,y,z) rod centers in pixels. The conversion factor is 0.2 mm per pixel. The other files start with "Ori" and correspond to orientations; these are specified as unit vectors.
• figure7.csv: four columns corresponding to Fig. 7 data: z/L, phi(z/L), r/L, phi(r/L). These are for the large diameter containers.
• figure8.csv: four columns corresponding to Fig. 8 data: z/L, phi(z/L), r/L, phi(r/L). These are for the large diameter containers.
• figure9.csv: three columns corresponding to Fig. 9 data: x, S for large diameter container, S for small diameter container.
• figure10.csv: three columns corresponding to Fig. 10 main panel data: r/L, S for large diameter container, S for small diameter container. The inset of Fig. 10 is a magnified view of the second column of data.
• large1.zip: zip file containing raw images from large cylinder experiment #1 (284 MB)
• large cylinder experiment #2 was unsuccessful, so no data!
• large3.zip: zip file containing raw images from large cylinder experiment #3 (262 MB)
• large4.zip: zip file containing raw images from large cylinder experiment #4 (264 MB)
• large5.zip: zip file containing raw images from large cylinder experiment #5 (258 MB)
• large5.zip: zip file containing raw images from large cylinder experiment #5 (264 MB)
• small1.zip: zip file containing raw images from small cylinder experiment #1 (156 MB)
• small2.zip: zip file containing raw images from small cylinder experiment #2 (72 MB)
• small3.zip: zip file containing raw images from small cylinder experiment #3 (77 MB)
• small4.zip: zip file containing raw images from small cylinder experiment #4 (75 MB)
• small5.zip: zip file containing raw images from small cylinder experiment #5 (75 MB)
The voxel size in the raw images is 0.2 mm on a side. The files in tomography.zip are numbered in a way that clearly corresponds with the raw data (for example, "Orilarge3.txt").

### Figure 11 data (simulation)

• simphi2.txt: data for Fig. 11. Columns are (aspect ratio, L/R + L/H, phi).

### Figure 12 data (simulation)

• phi_bndry3.txt: data for main figure. Columns are (flag, z/L or (R - r)/L, phi) where flag = (0 for horizontal, 1 for vertical, 2 for a fit line that we didn't plot). Horizontal data are plotted as a function of (R-r)/L and vertical data are plotted as a function of z/L.
• inset2.txt: data for inset. Columns are (aspect ratio, z/L, phi).